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horse and nutrition

PROTEINS

DEFINITION

Proteins are nitrogen (N) rich macromolecules composed of one or more amino-acid chains.

NUTRITIONAL INTEREST

Proteins represent 17 to 19% of the horses’ weight, nearly half of this is found in the muscular mass.

Proteins in the organism are in permanence degraded and replaced, in consequence, the daily distribution of a feed ration providing a correct supply of protein is needed. This is of even greater truth because:

- Unlike fats, momentary excess protein at a given moment cannot be stored in specialised tissues for later use;
- Unlike ruminants, it is practically impossible for the horse to count on an eventual production of amino-acids by his digestive microbial flora.

Covering requirements is therefore primordial, above all at the periods in the horses’ life when protein synthesis is intensified:

- the growing foal increasing his body mass;
- the broodmare with foal at foot producing a protein rich milk;
- the athletic horse, for whom repeated work sessions result in the development of his muscular mass.

RECOMMENDED REQUIREMENTS

Notion of crude protein and digestible protein
The crude protein content in a feed must be digestible and able to cover the horses’ requirements in essential amino acids. This determines the nitrogenous value. This value is expressed as the digestible protein value in the horse. This parameter tries to take into consideration that non-protein nitrogen (such as ammoniac, ammonium salts, amines etc.) will not be metabolically used by the horse. Certainly it will be absorbed by the digestive tract, however it must be eliminated by the emunctory organs (liver, kidneys etc.), from where there is the risk of overtaxing the organism.

Digestible protein requirements
Requirements are expressed in digestible protein (in g/day) and must be considered in relation to energy needs. To adjust protein levels in the ration we must therefore refer to the protein to energy ratio as much as to the quantity of digestible protein provided by the ration.
In the table below are the recommendations for a horse with (or expected to reach) an adult weight of 500kg depending on the physiological stage (source: Wolter, 1999; INRA 2012).

 

Source : WOLTER, 1999 and INRA, 2012 Ratio Digestible protein/UFC* '(in g/UFC)
  ADULT MAINTENANCE ≥ 70
IN WORK ≥ 70
  MARES GESTATION 0-5 MONTHS ≥ 70
GESTATION 6-8 MONTHS ≥ 80
GESTATION 9-11 MONTHS ≥ 90
LACTATION 1-3 MONTHS ≥ 100
LACTATION 4 MONTHS ≥ 90
LACTATION 5-6 MONTHS ≥ 80
  YOUNGHORSES 6-18 MONTHS ≥ 100

 

Indispensable amino-acids requirements 
The horse is not able to synthesise, or at insufficient speed, the 9 essential amino-acids: leucine, isoleucine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, lysine, tryptophan and histidine. Furthermore, as opposed to ruminants, he is more or less unable to count upon an eventual auto –supplementation of microbial produced nitrogen.

The horse is thus capable of being deficient in indispensable amino-acids. That is to say his organism cannot synthesise them. The proteins that intervene in the maintenance of cellular structures, for growth, gestation and lactation will only be synthesised to the level of the dietary supply of these essential amino-acids, and notably the limiting amino acid, lysine (see the diagram) then followed by the others knowing that research led at the University of Florida suggests that the second limiting amino-acid is threonine.

Reverdy - Ensemble des acides aminés apportés pour la ration du cheval

Lysine requirements have firstly been quantified in the foal. It has been shown that actively growing youngsters receiving lysine deficient rations had a slower growth rate than those nourished with a sufficient quantity of the amino acid, even if the crude protein content of the two rations was identical.
It is therefore important to use quality protein sources that are able to fulfil the lysine requirements in the horse. Detailed below are the recommendations depending on the physiological stage:

 

 Source INRA, 2012
  Lysinerequirements 
(g/day)

  REVERDY rations = Lysine supply 
(in g/day)
  ADULT MAINTENANCE 24
8 kg of hay* =
IN WORK 31 - 54
5.6 kg (8L) of ADULT ENERGY
+ 8 kg of hay* =
  MARE GESTATION 1-8 MONTHS 27 - 35
1.4 kg (2L) of YEARLING
+ 7 kg de hay* =
GESTATION 9-11 MONTHS 38 - 48
2.8 kg (4L) of YEARLING
+ 7 kg of hay* =
LACTATION 1-3 MONTHS 77 - 82
5.6 kg (8L) of YEARLING
+ 10 kg of hay* =
LACTATION 4-6 MONTHS 60 - 75
4.2 kg (6L) of YEARLING
+ 8.5 kg of hay* =
  YOUNGSTER 6-18 MONTHS 37 - 49
2.8 kg (4L) of FOAL
+ 5 kg of hay* = 2.8 kg (4L) of YEARLING
+ 5 kg of hay* =

* Normandy meadow hay : crude protein = 8%, Lysine = 4% of crude protein (INRA 2004)

EXCESS PROTEIN

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There is a fairly wide tolerance; however excesses are pointless and even dangerous. Even if the surplus nitrogen is transformed into good quality microbial proteins by the flora of the large intestine, they will be principally absorbed as ammoniac which has the principal consequence of overloading the emunctories (liver, kidneys etc.) if not accompanied by risks of auto-poisoning.

Consequently, supplying excess protein must be avoided in the athletic horse as it can be at the origin of:

- Dehydration: Urea will notably be excreted in sweat and in the urine; this will create an important call for water. It is responsible for an abundant sudation (white foamy sweat) and high urine excretion;
- Intestinal upsets: Diarrhoea, enterotoxaemia etc;
- Behavioural problems. Nervousness, Irritability;
- Perturbations in metabolism of carbohydrates;
- An increase in the respiratory frequency during exertion;
- Irritation of the respiratory tract due to ammonia volatilisation, from urine in the stable atmosphere.

 

In the same way, distribution of non-protein nitrogen sources such as young spring grass must be limited in so far as not only overloading the emunctories, they can be at the origin of diarrhoeas at turn-out (see the table in the section dedicated to “fibres”).

WHICH PROTEIN SOURCES TO CHOOSE ?

Numerous protein sources are used in horse nutrition, such as lucerne (alfalfa), milk proteins, oil cakes (soya, oil seed rape, etc.), or even mediocre by-products (millings, corn gluten feed, brewer’s grains etc.).

To compensate for cereals being relatively poor in lysine, protein sources employed must be of top quality. Furthermore, proteins that have a high nutritional value, that is to say, with high levels of digestible protein and Lysine compared to the crude protein content, allow limitation of nitrogenous waste that is prejudicial to the organism.

Thus we have made the choice to incorporate the best protein sources on the market: milk proteins, potato protein, and non-genetically modified soya bean meal (See table).

  CRUDE PROTEIN DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN LYSINE
(%) g/kg % Crude protein % Crude protein
  Common wheat 10.5 74 70.3 2.9
  Sunflower meal 33.5 245 73.2 3.5
  Barley 10.1 71 70.7 3.8
  Common wheat bran 14.8 106 71.7 3.9
  Linseed 22.6 170 75.2 3.9
  1st cut Normandy meadow hay 2.3 13 57.0 4.1
  Oats 9.8 69 72.2 4.2
  Lucerne (alfalfa) 17 - 18 % dry matter 15.9 94 59.4 4.5
  Oil seed rape meal 33.7 254 75.3 5.3
  Soya-bean meal 48 45.3 383 84.5 6.1
  Concentrate potato protein 78.7 678 86.1 7.6
  Skimmed milk powder 34.3 NP NP 7.9

NP = Not Provided 
Crude protein, digestible protein and lysine levels for different raw ingredients (Source : INRA 2004 and INRA 2012)

To sum up

CRUDE PROTEIN = DIGESTIBLE PROTEIN + METABOLIC WASTE

The quality of a protein source is provided by the ratio Digestible /Crude protein and the quantity of essential amino-acids, notably lysine, for a given quantity of crude protein.

Therefore these two parameters are objective indicators of protein quality, upon which we must rely to judge the quality of a protein source.